⯈Algorithm and its Characteristics

⯈Elementary Problems

- Addition of two numbers
- Calculate area and circumference of circle
- Calculate area of triangle
- Calculate simple interest
- Calculate slope and distance between two points
- Convert length in feet to inches
- Weighted score in exam
- Convert temperature in degree Celsius to Fahrenheit
- Swap two numbers
- Swap two numbers without using extra variable

- Overview of C Programming Language
- Getting started with C Programming Language
- Keywords
- Identifiers
- Constants
- Operators
- Expression Evaluation
- Mathematical expression to C equivalent expressions
- Datatypes
- Variables
- Integer representation in C
- Character representation in C
- Type conversion in C
- sizeof operator
- Comments
- Mathematical Functions
- input output statements
- width specifiers in C
- structure of a C program
- header files
- Compilation process of a C program
- Types of initializations.

⯈Basic C Programs

- C program to add two numbers
- C program to find area and circumference of circle
- C program to swap two numbers
- C program to swap two numbers without using extra variable
- C program to swap two numbers using bitwise XOR
- C program to convert temperature in Celsius to Fahrenheit
- C program to calculate gross salary of an employee
- C program to count number of digits in a positive integer
- C program to count number of digits in binary representation
- C program to count number of digits in base ‘K’
- C program to convert kilometer to meter, feet, inches and centimeters
- C program to find first and last digit of a number
- C program to find minimum number of currency denominations
- C program to convert cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates
- C program to find distance between two places on earth in nautical miles
- C program to find slope and distance between two points
- C program to add 1 to the number using ‘+’ operator
- C program to find maximum of two numbers using ternary operator
- C program to find maximum of three numbers using ternary operator
- C program to find kth bit of a number
- C program to find last four bits of a byte
- C Program to reset right most set bit of a number

## Algorithm and Flowchart to add two numbers

Whenever we write an algorithm or program, “** always read the input first”**. The input to this algorithm is any two numbers. So let us assume that A and B be some numbers. To read the input from the end user, we use “

**Read**“, some use “

**Input**“, that is perfectly ok to use anyone.

So, two read the input we may write,

**Read two numbers as A and B**. you could even write as** Read A and B**. The former is more appealing as it says A and B are numbers, so let us stick to that.

After we read two numbers, the task is to add the two numbers, so let’s add, A + B. The value of A + B should be stored in some variable. A variable is like a container that holds some value. (More about variables we will discuss in the Basics of C Programming chapter.) Hence, we store the answer in a variable. Let the variable name be Sum.

Therefore, we write,

**Sum = A + B**, read as Sum is assigned with the value of A + B.

At the end the algorithm should have at least one output. Therefore we display the answer and that answer is stored in variable Sum. To output we use word “**Display**“, some use the word “**Print**“

We write, **Display**** Sum.**

**Note: An algorithm should be generic, it shouldn’t be specific. We shouldn’t write as , “Read two numbers 3 and 4”**

### Algorithm:

**Name of Algorithm: To add two numbers.**

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Read two numbers as A and B

Step 3: Sum = A + B

Step 4: Display Sum

Step 5: Stop

### Flowchart:

### Tracing:

Let us do the dry run of the above algorithm:

At step number 2, it reads two numbers as A and B.

Let A = 10 and B = 20.

Step 3 computes, Sum = A + B, Sum = 10 + 20, Sum = 30

At Step 4: Display the value stored in Sum, i.e., 30 and we stop the algorithm.